Alcohol advertising is the promotion of alcoholic beverages by alcohol producers through a variety of media. Along with tobacco advertising, it is one of Alchol Advertising the most highly-regulated forms of marketing.
Scientific research around the Acohol Advertising world conducted by governments, health agencies and universities has, over decades, been unable to demonstrate any causal Alochol Advertising relationship between alcohol beverage advertising and alcohol consumption. It has, however, demonstrated that effective alcohol campaigns Alchool Advertising can increase both a producer's market share Alcool Advertising and also brand loyalty (Federal Trade Commission; Fisher; Frankena et al.; Sanders).
- 1 Campaign intentions
- 1.1 Target Alcohl Advertising markets
- 2 Advertising around the world
- 2.1 United Kingdom
- 2.2 United States
- 3 Responsible Alcoho Advertising drinking campaigns
- 4 Sponsorship Aclohol Advertising in sport
- 5 Famous Alcohool Advertising campaigns
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Many advertising Alcohil Advertising campaigns have attempted to increase consumption, brand and Alcoholl Advertising customer loyalty.
The intended audience of the alcohol advertising campaigns have changed Alcoohl Advertising throughout the years, with some brands being specifically targeted towards a particular demographic. Some drinks are traditionally Allcohol Advertising seen as a male drink, particularly beers and lagers, while others are predominantly drunk by females. Some brands have allegedly been specifically developed to appeal to people that would not normally drink that kind of beverage.
One area in which the alcohol industry have faced intense criticism and tightened legislation is in their alleged targeting of young people. Central to this is the development of alcopops – sweet-tasting, brightly coloured drinks with names that may appeal to a younger audience.
Advertising around the world
The European Union and World Health Organization (WHO) have both specified that the advertising and promotion of alcohol needs to be controlled. In September 2005, the WHO Euro Region adopted a Framework for Alcohol Policy for the Region. This has 5 ethical principles which includes "All children and adolescents have the right to grow up in an environment protected from the negative consequences of alcohol consumption and, to the extent possible, from the promotion of alcoholic beverages" . Cross-border television advertising within the EU is regulated by the 1989 Television without Frontiers Directive.  Article 15 of this Directive sets out the restrictions on alcohol advertising: "* it may not be aimed specifically at minors or, in particular, depict minors consuming these beverages;
- it shall not link the consumption of alcohol to enhanced physical performance or to driving;
- it shall not create the impression that the consumption of alcohol contributes towards social or sexual success;
- it shall not claim that alcohol has therapeutic qualities or that it is a stimulant, a sedative or a means of resolving personal conflicts;
- it shall not encourage immoderate consumption of alcohol or present abstinence or moderation in a negative light;
- it shall not place emphasis on high alcoholic content as being a positive quality of the beverages."
This article on alcohol advertising restrictions is implemented in each EU country largely through the self-regulatory bodies dealing with advertising.
The EU law 'TV without Frontiers' Directive is currently being revised to broaden the scope to new media formats such as digital television. Now called the 'Audiovisual Directive', the European Parliament is voting on the new text of the legislation in December 2006.
A number of non-governmental organisations working on alcohol policy have raised questions about whether the restrictions on alcohol advertising in Article 15 are effective and being properly implemented. For the Audiovisual Directive, they are calling on Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) to vote for a ban on alcohol adverts on televisions before 9.00 p.m. 
Some countries, such as Kenya and Norway, have banned all alcohol advertising on television and billboard .
Ofcom and the Advertising Standards Authority has some control over what can and cannot appear in advertising campaigns in the United Kingdom. In January 2005 an Ofcom ruling stated that the campaigns should not imply that there is a link between the consumption of alcohol and social or sexual success, or the perception of physical attractiveness . Lambrini, for example, were told to change their adverts in July 2005 when it depicted three women gaining the attention of an attractive man – they were told to change it to a show an unattractive man . The first billboards to be withdrawn under this ruling were those of Young's Bitter on 11 January 2006 . Greene King, a brewer which owns over 750 pubs in the UK, decided in February 2005 to cease the sale of drinks and cocktails with undesirable connotations behind their names. Any that had an association "with sexual promiscuity, machismo, anti-social behaviour or illegal acts" were banned. 
In the United States, spirits advertising has self-regulatory bodies that create standards for the ethical advertising of alcohol. The special concern is where advertising is placed. Currently, the standard is that alcohol advertisements can only be placed in media where 70% of the audience is over the legal drinking age. Despite the many beer and NASCAR sponsorships, there are some companies that do not advertise on taxi toppers or in auto magazines because of the negative association of drinking and driving. Alcohol advertising's creative messages should not be designed to appeal to people under the age of 21, for example, using cartoon characters as spokespeople is discouraged. Advertising cannot promote brands based on alcohol content or its effects. Advertising must encourage responsible drinking. Another issue in media placement is whether media vendors will accept alcohol advertising. The decision to accept an individual ad or a category of advertising is always at the discretion of the owner or publisher of a media outlet. In the United States, there are several television networks that, although their viewers may be above the legal drinking age, do not accept "vice" advertising like tobacco and alcohol advertising on principle. Because of strong self-regulation, alcohol advertising has avoided regulation by the federal government.
Responsible drinking campaigns
Many governments have pursued drink driving campaigns.
There have been various campaigns to help prevent alcoholism, under-age drinking and drink driving. The Portman Group, an association of leading drinks producers in the UK, are responsible for various such campaigns. These include responsible drinking, drink driving (and designated drivers), Proof of Age cards. The Drink Aware campaign , for example, aims to educate people about how to drink sensibly and avoid binge drinking. The web site address is displayed as part of all of the adverts for products made by members of the group. Many campaigns by the alcoholic beverage industry that advocate responsible drinking presuppose that drinking for recreational purposes is a positive activity and reinforce this the pro sensible consumption message.
Sponsorship in sport
The NASCAR Busch Series is sponsored by brewing company Anheuser-Busch
The sponsorship of sporting events and sportspeople is banned in many countries. For example, the primary club competition in European rugby union, the Heineken Cup, is called the H Cup in France because of that country's restrictions on alcohol advertising. However, such sponsorship is still common in other areas, such as the United States.
Alcohol advertising is common in motor racing competitions, and is particularly prominent in NASCAR racing. One major example of this is the Busch Series, sponsored by a brand of beer sold by Anheuser-Busch. Budweiser, the best-known Anheuser-Busch brand, sponsors the car of Dale Earnhardt, Jr., arguably one of the most popular Nextel Cup drivers.
Furthermore, NASCAR mandates drivers under 21 not be permitted to wear a "Budweiser Pole Award" or any alcohol-branded sticker on their car. In such cases, as shown with Nextel Cup driver Kyle Busch or Busch Series driver Reed Sorensen, the drivers' cars carry a generic "Pole Award" sticker with the corporate logo. One team, Petty Enterprises, refuses to participate in the Budweiser Pole Award and forfeits all alcohol monies won.
For distilled spirits, teams must run a responsible drinking sticker clearly visible on the car. For Jack Daniel's, the theme is "Pace Yourself", and includes on NASCAR's Web site a waving yellow flag warning drinkers. For Crown Royal, the television ads feature the car with the slogan "Be a champion" and it acting as a pace car to drivers, warning them of responsibility. Jim Beam has radio ads and NASCAR mandated statements about alcohol control. None of the three, however, is a full-time sponsor. (Jim Beam's parent, Fortune Brands, sometimes has its Moen Faucets replace Jim Beam on the car in selected races.)
Although tobacco companies have been the main source of financial backing in Formula One, some alcohol brands have also been associated with the sport. For example, Budweiser appears on the WilliamsF1 car and the Foster's Group (with the Foster's Lager brand) sponsor numerous circuits around the world.
Anheuser-Busch complies with the French alcohol advertising ban in Formula One by placing their Busch Entertainment theme park logos (mostly Sea World) appeared in places where their Budweiser logo would appear on the WilliamsF1 car at races where alcohol advertising is banned and in Middle Eastern countries, where alcohol advertising is discouraged. Few companies, however, added responsible drinking campaigns with their sponsorship, notably the 1989-90 BTCC Ford Sierra RS500 of Tim Harvey and Lawrence Bristow, which was sponsored by Labatts. Throughout the two seasons, the car bore a "Please Don't Drink and Drive" message.
Some stadiums, particularly in the U.S., bear the names of breweries or beer brands via naming rights arrangements, such as Busch Stadium, Coors Field, and Miller Park.
Diageo are a major sponsor of many sporting events through their various brands. For example, Johnnie Walker sponsor the Championship at Gleneagles and Classic golf tournaments along with the Team McLaren Formula One car.
Cricket is a sport with a large amount of alcohol sponsorship. The 2005 Ashes, for example, featured sponsorship hoardings by brands such as Red Stripe, Thwaites Lancaster Bomber and Wolf Blass wines.
Rugby union also has a substantial amount of alcohol sponsorship. The Scotland national team has a long-established relationship with The Famous Grouse, a brand of Scotch whisky. Wales has a more recent relationship with the Brains brewery, and the Springboks of South Africa had Castle Lager as their shirt sponsor until 2004. Magners is the title sponsor of the Magners League, the top competition in Ireland, Scotland and Wales,Guinness is the title sponsor of the Guinness Premiership, the top competition in England, and the beer brand Tooheys New was the Australian sponsor of the Southern Hemisphere Super 14 competition through the 2006 season. Bundaberg Rum is one of the sponsors of the Australia national rugby union team.
Famous campaigns include:
- The Budweiser Frogs (Budweiser)
- Real Men of Genius (Budweiser)
- Whassup? (Budweiser)
- "I bet he drinks Carling Black Label"
- Tastes Great — Less Filling (Miller Lite)
- Catfight (Miller Lite)
- The Swedish Bikini Team (Old Milwaukee)
- Hamm's Beer bear (Hamm's)
- "I Am Canadian!" (Molson)
- ABSOLUT's bottle campaign
- "Got a Little Captain in ya?" (Captain Morgan)
- Flash Beer Advertising Campaign Carlton Draught
One of the more famous Guinness advertising posters from the Gilroy Era of the 40's
Guinness' iconic stature can be attributed in part to its advertising campaigns. One of the most notable and recognisable series of adverts was created by Benson's advertising, primarily John Gilroy, in the 1930s and 40s. Gilroy was responsible for creating posters which included such phrases such as "Guinness for Strength", "It's a Lovely Day for a Guinness", and, most famously, "Guinness is Good For You". The posters featured Gilroy's distinctive artwork and more often than not featured animals such as a kangaroo, ostrich, seal, lion, and notably a toucan, which has become as much a symbol of Guinness as the Trinity College Harp. Another famous campaign more recently is the surfer ad on the television. Regarded by many as the most successful and amazingly produced TV ad of all time, it's cinematography and underlying message of the fact that patience is a good thing (good things come to those who wait) contibute to the imagination and creativity of the ad. Guinness advertising paraphernalia attracts high prices on the collectible market.
In a campaign reminiscent of viral marketing techniques, one advert quickly appeared as a screensaver distributed over the Internet. It was a simple concept, featuring Dublin actor Joe McKinney dancing around the drink while it was given time to settle. The accompanying music (mambo tune Guaglione by Pérez Prado) was released as a single and reached number 2 on the UK charts in May 1995.
In Africa, the character of Michael Power has been used since 1999 to boost sales.
Today, Guinness' principal television campaign in North America consists of limited animation commercials featuring two eccentric scientists in 19th century dress complimenting one another's ideas as "brilliant!"
Absolut vodka is made in Sweden and was introduced to the United States in the 1980s.It was a poorly performing brand due to a variety of factors: Sweden was not perceived as a vodka-producing country, the bottle was very awkward for bartenders to use, and vodka was perceived as a cheap, tasteless drink. Absolut's advertising campaign by TBWA exploited the shape of the bottle to create clever advertisements that made people involved in the advertising, and the brand took off. Before Absolut, there were very few distinctions in the vodka category. Today there are regular, premium, and superpremium vodkas each at different price points and qualities. Flavored vodkas have also taken off.
- 27 July 2005. "Drinks adverts told 'no sexy men'" at BBC News. Accessed 27 July 2005.
- Federal Trade Commission. Alcohol Marketing and Advertising: A Report to Congress. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission, 2003.
- Fisher, Joseph C. Advertising, Alcohol Consumption, and Abuse: A Worldwide Survey. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993, p. 150.
- Frankena, M., Cohen, M., Daniel, T., Ehrlich, L., Greenspun, N., and Kelman, D. Alcohol Advertising, Consumption and Abuse. In: Federal Trade Commission. Recommendations of the Staff of the Federal Trade Commission: Omnibus Petition for Regulation of Unfair and Deceptive Alcoholic Beverage Marketing Practices, Docket No. 209-46. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission, 1985.
- Sanders, James. Alcohol Advertisements Do Not Encourage Alcohol Abuse Among Teens. In: Wekesser, Carol (ed.) Alcoholism. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1994. Pp. 132-135, p. 133.
- "Issues" at the Distilled Spirits Industry Council of Australia Inc. site
- Alcohol Advertising Resources
- "Code Of Responsible Practices for Beverage Alcohol Advertising and Marketing" at the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States site
- The Alcohol Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC) at ASA.co.nz
- Canadian Advertising Codes and Guidelines – Overview at the Media Awareness Network
- "Advertising Alcohol" at Alcohol Concern
- "Advertising Alcohol and the First Amendment" at the Federal Trade Commission site
- The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth
- "The Ads" at the Guinness web site
- "Alcohol Advetrtising"
- "Alcohol Advertising Facts"
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